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TITLE
DEDICATION
CERTIFICATE 1
CERTIFICATE-2
DECLARATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
CONTENTS
LIST OF PLATES
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
ABBREVIATIONS
PREFACE
I. INTRODUCTION
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 GENERAL
3.The chief pathways of human exposure in the aquatic environment.
2.2 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL FACTORS
2.2.1 Influence of physico-chemical factors on bacterial population in aquatic environment
2.3 QUANTITATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA
2.3.1 Faecal and sewage indicator bacteria
2.3.1.1 Indicator bacteria in fin fish and shell fish
2.3.1.2 Indicator bacteria in water and sediment
2.4 QUANTITATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA
2.5 ACCUMULATION AND DEPURATION OF BACTERIA IN SHELL FISH
2.6 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE
III. MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 STUDY AREA
1.Vembanadu lake and its contributing rivers
2.Location map showing the three stations in Vembanadu lake and the connected landmass.
I. Station I, Kavanattinkara.
II. Station II, Off Kumarakom
3.1.1 Sampling stations
III. Station III, Nazrethpally, Attippeedika.
3.1.2 Collection of samples
3.1.3 Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis
3.1.3.1 Systematics
3.1.3.2 Habits, habitat and economic importance
IV. Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis (Hanley)
3.1.3.3 Morphology, anatomy and physiology
3.1.3.4 Food and feeding habits
3.2 ESTIMATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
3.3 BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
3.3.1 Quantitative analysis
3.3.1.1 Processing of samples
3.3.1.2 Enumeration of Total heterotrophic bacteria
3.3.1.3 Enumeration of Indicator bacteria
3.3.1.3.1 Total coliforms
3.3.1.3.2 Faecal coliforms
3 3 2 Qualitative analysis
3.3.2.1 Processing of samples
3.3.2.2 Isolation, identification, estimation and maintainance of bacteria
3.3.2.3 Isolation Rate
3.4 RETENTION AND DISSEMINATION OF BACTERIA BY VILLORIA CYPRINOIDES VAR. COCHINENSIS
3.5 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
IV. RESULTS
4.1 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
4.1.1 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN WATER
4.1.1.1 Temperature
4.1.1.2 pH
4.1.1.3 Salinity
4.1.1.4 Dissolved oxygen
4.1.2 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN SEDIMENT...
4.1.2 1 Temperature
4 1.2.2 pH
4.2 BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS..
4.2.1 QUANTITATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA
4.2.1.1 Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis
4.2.1.1.1 Total heterotrophic bacteria
1. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station 1.
2. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station 11.
3. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station III.
4. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis with respect to temperature of water and sediment, at station 1.
5. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis with respect to pH of water and sediment, at station I.
6. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis with respect to salinity of water, at station 1.
7. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis with respect to dissolved oxygen of water, at station 1.
8. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis with respect to temperature of water and sediment, at station 11.
9.Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis with respect to pH of water and sediment, at station II.
10. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis with respect to salinity of water, at station 11
11. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis with respect to dissolved oxygen of water, at station II.
12. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis with respect to temperature of water and sediment, at station III.
13. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis with respect to pH of water and sediment, at station III.
14. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis with respect to salinity of water, at station III.
15. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis with respect to dissolved oxygen of water, at station III.
4. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Colifor ms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station 1.
5. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station I1.
6. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station III.
16. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water with respect to temperature of water, at station I.
17. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water with respect to pH of water, at station I
18. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water with respect to salinity of water, at station I.
19. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water with respect to dissolved oxygen of water, at station I.
20. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water with respect to temperature of water, at station II.
21. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water with respect to pH of water, at station 11.
22. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water with respect to salinity of water, at station II.
23. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water with respect to dissolved oxygen of water, st station II.
24. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water with respect to temperature of water, at station III.
25. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water with respect to pH of water, at station III.
26. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water with respect to salinity of water, at station III.
27. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water with respect to dissolved oxygen of water, at station III.
7. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station I.
8. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station II.
9. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station III.
28. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment with respect to temperature of sediment, at station I.
29. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment with respect to pH of sediment and water, at station 1.
30. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment with respect to salinity of water, at station I.
31. Monthly distribution of TotalHeterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment with respect to temperature of sediment, at station 11.
32. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment with respect to pH of sediment and water, at station II.
33. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment with respect to salinity of water, at station II.
34. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (TUB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment with respect to temperature of sediment, at station III.
35. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment with respect to pH of sediment and water, at station III.
36. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment with respect to salinity of water, at station III.
10. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis at Station I, II and III.
37. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorila cyprinoides var, cochinensis, at station I, II and Ill.
38. Monthly distribution of Total Coliforms (TC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis at station I, II and III.
39. Monthly distribution of Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis at station I, IIand III.
11.Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water at Station I, II and III.
40. Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB) in water at stationI, II and III.
41.Monthly distribution of Total Coliforms (TC) in water at station I, II and III.
42.Monthly distribution of Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water at station I, II and III.
12. Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB), Total Coliforms (TC) and Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment at Station I, II and III.
43.Monthly distribution of Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB) in sediment at station I, II and III.
44.Monthly distribution of Total Coliforms (TC) in sediment at station I, II and III.
45. Monthly distribution of Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment at station I, II and III.
4.2.1.1 2 Total coliforms
4.2.1.1.3 Faecal coliforms
4.2.1.2 Water
4.2.1.2.1 Total heterotrophic bacteria
4.2.1.2.2 Total coliforms
4.2.1.2.3 Faecal coliforms
4.2.1.3 Sediment
4.2.1.3.1 Total heterotrophic bacteria
4.2.1.3.2 Total coliforms
4.2.1.3.3 Faecal coliforms
4.2.2 QUALITATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA
4.2.2.1 Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis
13. Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in the gastro intestinal tract of ViIlorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the Isolation Rate (IR) recorded at station I.
14. Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the Isolation Rate (IR) recorded at station II.
15. Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the Isolation Rate (IR) recorded at station III.
46. Per cent composition of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis, at station I.
47. Per cent composition of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis, at station II.
48. Per cent composition of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis, at station III.
16.Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in water and the Isolation Rate (IR) recorded at station I.
17.Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in water and the Isolation Rate (IR) recorded at station II.
18.Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in water and the Isolation Rate (IR) recorded at station III.
49. Per cent composition of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in water, at station I.
50. Per cent composition of Gram negative and gram positive bacteria in water, at station II.
51. Per cent composition of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in water, at station III.
19.Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in sediment and the Isolation Rate (IR) recorded at station I.
20.Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in sediment and the Isolation Rate (IR) recorded at station II.
21. Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in sediment and the Isolation Rate (IR) recorded at station III.
52. Per cent composition of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in sediment, at station I.
53. Per cent composition of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in sediment, at station II.
54. Per cent composition of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in sediment, at station III.
55. Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the Isolation Rate (IR) recorded, at station I.
56. Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the Isolation Rate (IR) recorded, at station II.
57. Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the Isolation Rate (IR) recorded, at station III.
58.Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in water and the Isolation Rate (IR) recorded, at station I.
59. Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in water and the Isolation Rate [IR] recorded, at station II
60. Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in water and the Isolation Rate [IR] recorded, at station Ill
61. Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria insediment and the Isolation Rate [IR] recorded, at station I
62. Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria insediment and the Isolation Rate [IR] recorded, at station II
63. Per cent generic distribution of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria insediment and the Isolation Rate [IR] recorded, at station Ill
22. Correlation co-efficient matrix between THB, TC and FC associated with the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at station I.
23. Correlation coefficient between THB, TC and FC associated with the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at station I.
24. Correlation co-efficient matrix between THB, TC and FC associated with the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var, cochinensis and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at station Il.
25. Correlation co-efficient between THB, TC and FC associated with the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station II.
26. Correlation co-efficient matrix between THB, TC and FC associated with the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at station III.
27. Correlation co-efficient between THB., TC and FC in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at station III.
28. Correlation co-efficient matrix between THB, TC and FC in water and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at station 1.
30. Correlation co-efficient matrix between THB, TC and FC in water and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at station II.
32. Correlation co-efficient matrix between THB, TC and FC in water and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station III.
29. Correlation coefficient between THB, TC and FC in water and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station I.
31. Correlation coefficient between THB, TC and FC in water and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station II.
33. Correlation coefficient between THB, TC and FC in water and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station Ill.
34. Correlation co-efficient matrix between THB, TC and FC in sediment and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at station 1.
36. Correlation co-efficient matrix between THB, TC and FC in sediment and the physico-chemical parameters recorded st station Il.
38. Correlation co-efficient matrix between THB, TC and FC in sediment and the physico-chemical parameters recorded st station 111.
35. Correlation coefficient between THB, TC and FC in sediment and the physico-chemical parameters recorded st Station I
37. Correlation coefficient between THB, TC and FC in sediment and the physico-chemical parameters recorded st Station II.
39. Correlation coefficient between THB, TC and FC in sediment and the physico-chemical parameters recorded at Station III.
40. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorila cyprinoides var. cochinensis between station I, II and III.
41. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Total Coliforms (TC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis between station I, II and III.
42. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villarita cyprinoides var. cochinensis between Station I, II and III.
43. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB) in water between Station I, II and III.
44. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Total Coliforms (TC) in water between station I, IIand III.
45. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Faecal Coliforms (FC) in water between station I, II and III,
46. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Total Heterotrophic Bacteria (THB) in sediment between Station I, II and III.
47. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Total Coliforms (TC) in sediment between Station I, II and III.
48. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Faecal Coliforms (FC) in sediment between Station I, II and III.
49. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Total Coliforms (TC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis, water and sediment at station I.
50. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Faecal Conforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorila cyprinoides var. cochinens: s, water and sediment at station I.
51. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Total Coliforms (TC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var, cochinensis, water and sediment at station 11.
52. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Faecal Coliform (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis water and sediment at station II.
53. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Total Coliforms (TC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis, water and sediment st station III.
54. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Faecal Coliforms (FC) in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis, water and sediment st station 111.
55. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Gram negative bacteria in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoids var. cochinensis at station 1, II and III.
56. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Gram positive bacteria in the gastro intestinal tract of Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis at station 1, II and 111.
57. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Gram negative bacteria in water at station 1, 11 and 111.
58. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Gram positive bacteria in water at station I, II and III.
59.Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Gram negative bacteria in sediment at station I, 11 and III.
60.Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Gram positive bacteria in sediment at station I, 11 and III.
61.Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the Rate of Isolation of bacteria from the gut of Villorita cyprinoides var cochinensis at station I, II and III.
62.Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for the Rate of Isolation of bacteria in water at station I, II and III.
4.2.2.1.1 Isolation Rate
4.2.2.2 Water
4.2.2.2.1 Isolation Rate
4.2.2.3 Sediment
4.2.2.3.1 Isolation Rate
4.3 RETENTION AND DISSEMINATION OF BACTERIA BY THE BLACK CLAM VILLORITA CYPRINOIDES VAR. COCHINENSIS
63.Retention and dissemination of bacteria by the black clam Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis.
64. Retention and dissemination of bacteria by the black clam Villorita cyptinoides var. cochinensis.
64. Correlation coefficient between Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Total Coliforms and the dissemination (depuration) time in the black clam Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis.
65. Correlation coefficient between Total Heterotrophic Bacteriafrotal Coliforms and thedissemination [depuration] time in the black clam Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis.
V. DISCUSSION
5.1 GENERAL
5.2 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
5.2.1 Water
5.2.2 Sediment
5.3 QUANTITATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA
5.3.1 Total heterotrophic bacteria
5.3.1.1 Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis
5.3.1.2 Water
5.3.1.3 Sediment
5.3.2 Role of coliforms as indicators of faecal and sewage pollution
5.3.2.1 Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis
5.3.2.2 Water
5.3.2.3 Sediment
5.4 QUALITATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA
5.4.1 Generic composition
5.4.1.1 Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis
5.4.1.1.1 Isolation Rate
5.4.1.2 Water and Sediment
5.4.1.2.1 Isolation Rate
5.5 ROLE OF VILLORITA CYPRINOIDES VAR. COCHINENSIS AS PATHOGENIC BACTERIAL RESERVOIR
VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
VII. REFERENCES