Search & Results
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF PLATES
Picture 1 A view of the typical habitat of T.affinis at the Calicut University Campus.
Picture 2 A view of the typical habitat of T.striatus at the Calicut University Campus.
Previous work on genus Turdoides
II. STUDY AREA
1 Table 2.1 Total rainfall (mm)
1 2.1 Total rainfall during the years 1995-1998.
2 Table 2.2 Monthly totals of rainfall recorded at the Kozhikode station of the meteorological department
2 2.2 Monthly mean rainfall recorded during the years 1995-1998.
3 Table 2.3 Monthly average of maximum and minimum temp, rainfall and relative humidity recorded at the Kozhikode station of the meteorological department.
4 Table 2.4 The different types of sub habitats identified in the campus.
3 2.3 Habitat types identified in the Caticut University Campus.
5 Table 2.5 Habitats of Babblers studied at different localities.
4 2.4 Map showing the study sites.
Materials and methods
5 3.1 Layout of the multiple stage quadrate method.
6 Table 3.1 Classification of plants.
6 3.2 Layout of the transect line and the vegetation Study quadrates.
7 Table 3.2 Types of canopy with percentage of crown overlap.
8 Table 3.3 Categories of plants based on crown position.
7 3.3 Parts of a Jungle Babbler scored separately in recording allopreening behaviour.
IV. HABITAT AND DISTRIBUTION
9 Table 4.1 Frequency of occurrence of Babblers in different subhabitats in the campus
10 Table 4.2 Relationship between various vegetation types and Birds / hectare.
8 4.1 Mean number of birds / hectare at various sites.
Effect of vegetation
9 4.2 Relationship between class I plants and birds / hectare at various sites.
10 4.3 Relationship between class II plants and birds / hectare at various sites.
11 4.4 Relationship between class III plants and birds / hectare at various sites.
Effect of canopy cover
11 Table 4.3 Relationship between canopy cover and Birds / hectare.
12 4.5 Relationship between canopy cover and birds / hectare.
Effect of Foliage height diversity
12 Table 4.4 Relationship between F.H.D and Birds / hectare.
Effect of ground cover
13 Table 4.5 Relationship between ground cover and the distribution and abundance of Babblers.
13 4.6 Relationship between ground cover and birds / hectare.
Effect of the dencity of plants
14 Table 4.6 Effect of the density of class 1 plants in the distribution and abundance of Babblers.
Effect of relative dencity of plants
15 Table 4.7 Distribution and abundance of Babblers in relation to the mean number of trees of height between 1-30 meters.
Effect of height of the trees
Effect of Food resources
16 Table 4.8 Seasonal variation of abundance of common arthropods at various sites.
14 4.7 Seasonal variation in the number arthropods in the dry season.
15 4.8 Seasonal variation in the number of arthropods in the rainy season.
V. BREEDING BIOLOGY OF BABBLERS
Picture 3 The nest of the Whiteheaded Babbler T.affinis.
Picture 4 The nest of the Jungle Babbler T.striatus.
17 Table 5.1 Number of nests of T.striatus and T.affinis observed from Jan.1997toDec.1998.
18 Table 5.2 Plants used for nesting by Babblers.
19 Table 5.3 Number of nests of Babblers on trees and bushes.
Nest site and material
Choise of nesting plant
20 Table 5.4 Nesting heights of T.striatus and T.affinis.
21 Table 5.5 Location of nest.
Vertical distribution of nests
Position of nest in the canopy
Picture 5 Nests of the Babblers, T.striatus and T.affinis.
16 5.1 Nesting heights of T. affinis and T. striatus.
22 Table 5.6 Plants used in nest construction in Taffinis and T.striatus.
23 Table 5.7 Nest size of Babblers Taffinis and T.striatus.
24 Table 5.8 Egg size of T.striatus.
25 Table 5.9 Egg size of T.affinis.
26 Table 5.10 Clutch size of the two species of Babblers.
17 5.2 Clutch size of T. affinis.
18 5.3 Clutch size of T. striatus.
27 Table 5.11 Nesting success in relation to the height of the nest in Babblers.
28 Table 5.12 Fledging success in Babblers, T affinis and T.striatus.
VI. FOOD AND FEEDING HABITS
29 Table 6.1 Weights and measurements of the three species of Babblers.
30 Table 6.2 Exact feeding spots of Babblers Taffinis and T.striatus.
31 Table 6.3 Foraging methods of Babblers T.affinis and T.striatus.
32 Table 6.4 Proportion of animal and plant food in the stomach contents of male Jungle Babblers.
33 Table 6.5 Proportion of animal and plant food in the stomach contents of female Jungle Babblers.
34 Table 6.6 Proportion of animal and plant food in the stomach contents of male White headed Babblers.
35 Table 6.7 Proportion of animal and plant food in the stomach contents of female White headed Babblers.
36 Table 6.8 Food items given to the nestlings by the attending adult Babblers T.affinis and T.striatus.
Food of nestlings
Food of nestlings after one week
37 Table 6.9 Frequency of occurrence of other bird species along with the foraging White headed Babblers
38 Table 6.10 Frequency of occurrence of other bird species along with the foraging Jungle Babblers
39 Table 6.11 Frequency of occurrence of clashes between the jungle Babblerand the White headed Babbler with other species of birds.
40 Table 6.12 Frequency of occurrence of the Three striped palm squirrel along with the foraging Babblers.
Picture 6 The sentinel of a Whiteheaded Babbler T.affinis.
Picture 7 A group of Jungle Babblers feeding on kitchen scraps.
41 Table 7.1 Seasonal variation of sentinel behaviour observed in T.affinis and T. striatus.
42 Table 7.2 Height of the sentinels perch observed from Jan. 1997 to Dec. 1998.
19 7.1 Height of the sentinel perch observed from Jan 1997 to Dec 1998
43 Table 7.3 Mean time of sentinel behaviour with time of day in T.affinis
20 7.2 Changes in the duration of sentinel behaviour with time of a day in T. affinis.
44 Table 7.4 Mean time of sentinel behaviour with time of day in T.striatus.
21 7.3 Changes in the duration of sentinel behaviour with time of a day in T. striates.
45 Table 7.5 Total duration of sentinel activity in various months observed from Jan. 1997 to Dec. 1998.
46 Table 7.6 Frequency of occurrence of various calls in the Whiteheaded Babbler in the year 1998.
47 Table 7.7 Frequency of occurrence of various calls in the Jungle Babbler in the year 1998.
22 7.4 Percentage of occurrence of various calls in T. affinis in the year 1998.
23 7.5 Percentage of occurrence of various calls in T.striatus in the year 1998.
48 Table 7.8 Allopreening behaviour in T affinis in the year 1997.
Picture 8 Poses adopted by Jungle Babblers during allopreening.
49 Table 7.9 Allopreening behaviour in T.striatus in the year 1997
50 Table 7.10 Frequency of allopreening bouts in the Whiteheaded Babbler in the year 1997 in relation to time of a day.
51 Table 7.11 Frequency of allopreening bouts in the Jungle Babbler in the year 1997 in relation to time of a day.
24 7.6 Areas allopreened in T. affinis.
25 7.7 Areas alloprened in T.striatus
52 Table 7.12 Waking behaviour of Jungle Babbler from Jan. 1997 to Dec. 1998.
53 Table 7.13 Waking behaviour of Whiteheaded Babbler from Jan.1997 to Dec. 1998.
54 Table 7.14 Roosting behaviour in Jungle Babbler in the year 1998.
55 Table 7.15 Roosting behaviour in Whiteheaded Babbler in the year 1998.
56 Table 7.16 Monthly variation in sleeping hours in the Jungle Babbler from Jan. 1997 to Dec. 1998.
57 Table 7.17 Monthly variation in sleeping hours in the Whiteheaded Babbler Taffinis from Jan. 1997 to Dec. 1998.
58 Table 7.18 Bathing behaviour - T.affnis.
59 Table 7.19 Bathing behaviour-T striatus.
VIII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
APPENDIX - I LIST OF BIRDS OBSERVED IN THE CALICUT UNIVERSITY CAMPUS
APPENDIX - II
APPENDIX - III
APPENDIX - IV
APPENDIX - V