Search & Results
LIST OF TABLES
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Cytological studies in the diploids
Induction of Polyploidy
(iii) Planting of treated seeds and seedlings
Detection, isolation and evaluation of autotetraploids
(i) Morphology and cytology
(ii) Palynological studies
(iii) Foliar anatomy
(iv) Physiological traits and biomass production
(v) Estimation of nutrients
(vi) Nodulation and nitrogenase activity
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1. MORPHOLOGY AND CYTOLOGY
1.1. Cytology of the diploid
1.2. Effectiveness of colchicine treatment
1.3. Immediate effect of colchicine
1.4. Identification of polyploids
1.5. Cytology of the induced tetraploids
Cytology of the diploid
Induction of Polyploidy
Cytology of the induced tetraploids
1 Germination of seeds of Pueraria phaseoloides under acid and hot water treatments
2 Effect of colchicine on seed germination and survival in P. p aseoloides
3 Frequency of colchi-tetraploids produced after different seedling treatments
4 Mean and range of different characteristics of diploid and autotetraploid plants
5 Meiotic chromosome behaviour in the autotetraploids (2n = 4x = 44) of P. phaseoloides at metaphase-I
6 Chiasma frequency per cell in the diploids and autotetraploids of P, phaseoloides
7 Frequency of chromosome anomalies at anaphase-I in the autotetraploids of P. phaseoloides
Fig.1. A young rubber plantation with a wellestablished ground cover of P. phaseoloides
Fig.2.Somatic metaphase of -P. phaseoloidesshowing 2n = 22. X 3000
Fig.3 Pollen mother cell (PMC) at diakinesisshowing n = 11 bivalents. X 1200
Fig.4 PMC at metaphase-I showing 11bivalents. X 1200
Fig. 5. PMC at anaphase-I showing 11: llchromosome disjunction. X 1200
Fig. 6, 7. Flower, pod and seeds of P.phaseoloides.
Fig.8. (a) Retardation in growth rate in colchicinetreated seedling and (b) normal seedling
Fig. 9. (a) Six weeks old normal seedling and (b) colchicine treated seedling
Fig. 10. A dwarf statured seedling
Fig. 11. (a) Trifoliate leaf of the diploid and (b) polyphyllous leaf of the tetraploid
Fig. 12. (a) Branched inflorescence of tetraploid and (b) inflorescence of diploid
Fig. 13. (a) Stomata in the diploid and in (b) the tetraploid (Arrow indicates base ofthe trichome) X 1200
Fig. 14. (a) Fertile pollen grains in the diploid (b) Fertile and sterile pollen grains in thetetraploid X 1200
Fig. 15. Diakinesis in the induced tetraploid showing71V + l111 + 611 + 11 (arrowed)
Fig. 16. Diakinesis showing 61V + 1111 + 811 + 11 (~rrowed)
Fig. 17. Diakinesis showing 211s attached to thenucleolus
Fig. 18-20. Diakinesis showing varying degrees ofchromosome configuration
Fig. 21. Metaphase-I in the induced tetraploidshowing 11IVs.
Fig.22-26. Metaphase-I showing varying frequencies ofchromosome configuration
Fig. 27. Cell showing secondary association betweentwo bivalents (Dotted arrows indicate Is)
Fig. 28. Cell showing secondary association betweenfour bivalents
Fig. 29. 8IV * 6II
Fig. 30. 9IV + 4II
Fig. 31. 9IV + 4II
Fig. 32. 10IV + 2II
Figs. 33, 34. Metaphase-I showing 8 I V + 611
Figs. 35, 36. Anaphase-I showing varying degrees ofstickiness
Fig. 37. Anaphase-I showing regular segregationof chromosomes
Fig. 38. Anaphase-I showing 22: 1: 21 chromosomeseparation [Arrow indicates laggard1
Figs. 39, 40. Irregular grouping of chromosomes atanaphase-I showing laggards
Figs. 41, 42. Sticky bridge at anaphase-I
Fig. 4 3. Tripolar orientation of chromosomes. atanaphase.
Fig. 44. Anaphase-II showing laggards
2.2. Induced tetraploids
8 Occurrence of different pollen shapes in diploid and autotetraploid P. phaseoloides
9 Morphological characteristics of pollen grains in diploid and tetraploid cytotypes
10 Effect of acetolysis on grain size in P. phaseoloides
11 Plantwise pollen diameter in ten tetraploids and their corresponding diploids
12 Anova for data presented in Table 11
Fig. 45. (a! Equatorial view of pollen grain in the diploid showing lolongate and (b) circular ora
Fig. 46. (a) Equatorial view of pollen grain in the tetraploid showing lolongate and (b) circular ora
Fig. 47. Brevicolporate grain - Tetraploid
Fig. 48. Syncolporate grain - Tetraploid
Fig. 49. 4-zonocolporate grain - Tetraploid (X 1200)
Fig. 50. 3-zonocolporate grain (Polar view) -Tetraploid (X 1200)
Fig. 51. l - spiraperturate grain - Tetraploid (X 1200)
Fig. 52. Scanning electron micrograph (SEMI of apollen grain - Diploid (X 2500)
Fig. 53. SEM of a 4-zonocolporate grain in the tetraploid (Note the shape of the pollen with bigger reticulations) (X 7500)
Fig. 54. 5EM of a grain showing circular ora (X 7500)
Fig. 55. Diagramatic representation of possible line of morphological evolution of pollen in the autotetraploids of P. phaseoloides.
Fig. 56. (a) Diagrammatic representation of a pollengrain showing location of measurements.
(b) Palynogram of P. phaseoloides.
Fig. 57. Effect of acetolysis on grain size in ten tetraploids of P. phaseoloides & corresponding diploids.
Fig. 58. Frequency distribution of pollen grain diameter in the colchiploids, diploids and induced tetraploids of P-. phaseoloides.
3. FOLIAR ANATOMY
(a) Palisade parenchyma
(b) Spongy mesophyll
(c) Paraveinal mesophyll
3.1.3. Vascular system
3.2. Comparative anatomy of diploids and tetraploids
Comparative anatomy of diploids and induced tetraploids
13 Comparative foliar anatomy of diploid and autotetraploids of P. phaseoloides with the percentage occupied by the respective compartments
Figs. 59-65. T.S. of leaf
4. LEAF PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION
4.1. Leaf area, leaf weight and specific leaf weight
4.2. Transpiration and stomatal resistance
4.3. Carbondioxide exchange rate and canopy PN
4.4. Biomass production
Leaf area, leaf weight and specific leaf weight
Stomatal traits and transpiration
Carbondioxide exchange rate and canopy photosynthesis
14 Certain physiological traits and biomass production in the autotetraploids and corresponding diploids of P, phaseoloides
15 Correlation of total dry matter with growth parameters in autotetraploids of P. phaseoloides
Fig. 66. Diploid (a) and Tetraploid (b) plants of -P.phaseoloides established from rooted cuttings.
Fig. 67. Detached roots of diploid (a) and tetraploid (b) plants of P, phaseoloides showing increased root proliferation in the latter.
Fig. 68. Relationship of carbondioxide exchange rate (CER), canopy photosynthesis and total leaf area with total dry matter in the autotetraploids of P-. phaseoloides
5. ESTIMATION OF NUTRIENTS
16 The nutrient content in different plant parts as affected by ploidy in P. phaseoloides,
17 Uptake and distribution of total nutrients (on a dry weight basis) in different plant parts as affected by ploidy.
18 Nitrogen content and uptake of nitrogen by the root nodules of diploids and autotetraploids
19 Shoot: root ratio for different nutrients in the diploids and autotetraploids,
Fig. 69. (A) Uptake of Nitrogen in different plant parts and (B) total uptake of various nutrients in whole plants of diploid and teetraploid P.phaseoloides
Fig. 70. Uptake of (A) Phosphorus; (B) Potassium; (C) calcium and (33) magnesium in various plantparts of diploid and tetraploid -P. phaseoloides.
6. NODULATION AND NITROGENASE ACTIVITY
6.1. Nodule number and nodule score
6.2. Nodule weight
6.3. Nitrogenase activity
20 Nodulation traits in diploid and autotetraploid P. phaseoloides.
21 Acetylene reduction activity at two different time intervals for the diploid and autotetraploid plants.
Fig. 71. Rooted cuttings of diploid and tetraploid P-.phaseoloides showing initial development of a few, but larger nodules in the latter .
Fig. 72. (a) Detached nodules in the diploids graded assmall, medium and large and (b) very largenodules in the tetraploids.
Fig. 73. Variation in nodule weight, nodule score and acetylene reduction activity within the autotetraploids of -P. phaseoloides.
IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION